By the 19th Century, a scarcity of firewood made coal Britain’s primary heating fuel.
Everyday Life in Regency and Victorian England from 1811-1901 by Kristine Hughes
The chalkboard and colored chalks are said to have been invented by James Pillans (1778-1864), headmaster of Old High School of Edinburgh, Scotland to teach geography. George Baron at West Point Military Academy was the first American instructor to use one to teach math in 1801. By 1815, it was referred to as a "blackboard."
Etymology of the word "blackboard"
The cloth measuring tape used by dressmakers and tailors was invented in 1820.
The Cut of Men’s Clothing 1600-1900, by Nora Waugh
Interactions for Wearable Computers in Business Suits,
by Circus Systems of
The coat hanger wasn't invented until the late 1860s.
Cotton Wool referred to raw cotton which was downy and soft like wool. Prior to the sixteenth century, it was known as bombast (from the French word bombace which meant padding) and imported from Egypt. From the eighteenth century on, cotton was grown in America.
British History Online
The game of Croquet was not played during the Georgian and Regency periods. It is often claimed the game began in the 17th century as Pall Mall. However, Pall Mall was a more violent sport played by men on a long alley way, and went out of fashion. Most of its long courts--the mall--were converted into shopping areas. Consequently the term "mall" became associated with a conglomeration of shops along a shared walkway.
History of Croquet
Croquet and Cousins
Croquet: Lore and Legend
Droit du seigneur--the right of a feudal lord to have sex with the bride of any vassal on her wedding night--never was practiced in England. There is no evidence of it during the reign of Edward I (à la Braveheart). The myth is noted as early as 1247, flourished during the 16th Century, and was especially prevalent around the time of the French Revolution. But while the practice may have occurred to a limited extent in Europe, it did not exist in England.
Jus Primae Noctis:A Study of Rights and Wrong,Address by Dr. Rick Rickards, Philosophical Club of Cleveland, Tuesday, April 9, 2002
Widespread abuse of the franking privilege occurred in Britain during the early 19th Century. Several attempts were made at reform, including requiring a Member to write, in his own hand, the name of the post town of the dispatch, and the date in words. The year 1837 saw 124,000 letters delivered by the post office, while almost four million Parliamentary franked letters were transmitted in 1839. The revenue loss was so staggering, the government abolished the practice in 1840.
” from Chambers’ Book of Days
, by Robert Chambers
Kingston, Jamaica didn’t incorporate as a town until 1802. At that time, it had a mayor, twelve aldermen and twelve members of a common council. Prior to incorporation, it was a bustling seaport village, established after the earthquake at Port Royal in 1692. In 1755, under the leadership of Sir Edward Knowles,Kingston became the island’s seat of government. When his term expired, however, that honor reverted back to
Town. In 1780, 1782, 1843, 1862, and 1881, the city was wracked by fires. Crown Colony Government returned in 1866. In 1907, the town was destroyed by a devastating earthquake.
Official Souvenir Album of the Sesqui-centennial Anniversary of the City of Kingston, Jamaica 1802-1952. published by the Kingston & St. Andrew Corporation
The lime tree which grows in England is not citrus. It is a Linden tree, commonly called basswood in America.
At the dawn of the 19th Century, the average age of marriage for a gently bred young lady was 22 or 23. The median age for heirs to a title was 28/29. Younger sons didn’t marry until their thirties, and the brides they chose were ten years younger. And ninety percent of peers’ sons married for affection, not money.
The Family, Sex and Marriage in England 1500-1800, by Lawrence Stone
It was never possible for English couples to be married at sea by the captain during the 18th 19th Century. Only ordained clergy were authorized to marry people. A law passed in 1870 stipulated that ceremonies conducted on board ship by a man in holy orders, but without banns or a license, were considered legal.
Marriage Act of 1753
Message #12, Writing Regency, June 23, 2005 personal email from Nancy Mayer June 23, 2005 citing Burns Ecclesiastical Law for 1809
The modern pencil was born in 1564 with the discovery of graphite in Cumbria, England. Sheets of graphite were cut into thin strips to fit square wood holders.
Pencil and Eraser Trivia
The History of Pencils
Faber-Castell: History of the Pencil
Proxy marriages were always followed by a face-to-face ceremony in church or before a clergyman to insure that offspring born of the union were considered legitimate under British law. Between 1750 and 1850, English courts were divided on the legality of Gretna Green marriages.
Road to Divorce, by Lawrence Stone
Cochrane: Britannia’s Sea Wolfe, by Donald Thomas
Marriage Act of 1753
Quill pens were used from the eighth century until the nineteenth. Metal nib pens were in use as far back as the first century and are mentioned in Samuel Pepys' diary of August, 1663. A metal point pen was patented in 1803 but not mass produced until 1822 by John Mitchell of Birmingham.
A Brief History of Writing Instruments by Mary Bellis
History of the Pen - Wikipedia
Writing Instruments of the 19th century
When dining à la française,(all the dishes of a dinner course placed on the table at the same time), a remove is a dish taken away and replaced by another before that course is finished.
Dinner is Served, by Gerard Brett
Second hands on time pieces did not come into vogue until after the development of the chronometer, around 1750. Second hands did not appear in pocket watches until the later part of the 18th Century.
My Pocket Watch, by Turner Howard
The Illustrated Longitude, by Dava Sobel and William J. H. Andrewes; Walker and Company, New York; 1998
Although first minted under the reign of Henry VII, sovereigns went out of use after 1604. Guineas, worth 21 shillings, were Britain’s primary gold coin until 1813. They were replaced in 1817, during the “Great Recoinage,” by 20-shilling sovereigns, which remained Britain’s highest valued coin until World War I.
Chard Ltd of Blackpool, England
Coinage of Great Britain , by Ken Elks
The English physician, Edward Jenner, is credited with development of the smallpox vaccine in 1796, but variolation was observed in Turkey by Lady Mary Wortley Montagu in 1717. In actuality, the practice dates to at least the 9th Century when Buddhist nuns ground up scabs of infected persons and blew the powder into their patients’ nostrils.
Lady Mary Wortley Montagu (1689-1762): Smallpox Vaccination in Turkey, Modern History Sourcebook
The Rise and Fall of a Disease, The History of Smallpox, Heather Brannon, M.D.
A special license to marry had to be obtained at Doctors Commons in London, from the Archbishop of Canterbury. It allowed a couple to marry any time, any place. Ordinary licenses could be obtained from any bishop and allowed a couple to forego the calling of banns and marry in either the bride’s or the groom’s parish church.
Road to Divorce, by Lawrence Stone
Georgian Marriages, The Regency Collection
Titles and entailed property were inherited by legitimate male descendants only.
Writing Historical Novels, by Lynne Connolly
Addressing the Duke and Inheriting his Loot,a guide to English titles, forms of address and inheritance laws during the Regency period Presented by Emily Hendrickson and Al Lansdowne at the Beau Monde Conference, July 28, 1999
The invention of terry cloth towels in 1845 is attributed to Englishman, Samuel Holt. The toweling wasn't widely manufactured, however, until after 1855. Great quantities were exported to Turkey where it was so popular, it became known as "Turkish Towel." Prior to the invention of terry cloth, huckaback was the popular form of toweling.
A Complete Dictionary of Dry Goods by George S. Cole
A History of the Arts of Design: 1684-1753 by John Smibert
Until the Abolition of Forfeiture for Treason & Felony Act of 1870, those convicted of treason not only lost their lives, their property was confiscated by the Crown. No family member could inherit the traitor's title, land, or goods on the theory that the bloodline was corrupted.
Asset Confiscation in Victoria, by Clive Scott, Barrister & Solicitor
The Criminal Trial in Later Medieval England: Felony before the Courts of Edward I to the Sixteenth Century,by John G. Bellamy, University of Toronto Press, 1998
The introduction of the German waltz into England is dated variously as between 1811-1815.
Reminiscences of Captain Gronow: 1810-1860, by Captain Rees Howell Gronow
An Elegant Madness: High Society in Regency England, by Venetia Murray
The Regency Reference Book, by Emily Hendrickson
In 1549, Edward VI of England decreed in the Book of Common Prayer that the wedding ring was to be placed on the fourth finger of the bride’s left hand. Catholics continued to place the ring on the right hand.
The Form of Solemnization of Matrimony, 1662 Book of Common Prayer
The wholesale extermination of wolves in Britain began during Edward I's reign (1272-1307). By the time of Henry VI (1485-1509), they had disappeared in England. In Wales, they vanished during the early medieval period. By the 17th century, they were gone from Scotland. The last remaining strongholds were in Ireland until the late 17th century. By the 1760s, the wolf was extinct in the British Isles.
"Wolf", 11th Edition of Encyclopedia Britannica, 1911